The following groups of people who were in the UK by 11pm on 31 December 2020 (including those temporarily outside the UK in line with the definition of continuous qualifying period, which outlines permitted absences) are eligible to apply under the EU settlement scheme (BUT see below for important information about deadlines and late applications):
- EU citizens;
- citizens of Norway, Lichtenstein, Iceland (non-EU EEA citizens);
- Swiss citizens;
This list is not exhaustive. See the Home Office guidance on the EU settlement scheme eligibility for a complete list.
Eligible family members of those who have permission (or are eligible to apply) under the EU Settlement Scheme arriving in the UK since 1 January 2021 should look at the information on the Citizens advice Bureau website to check information about eligibility and relevenat deadlines.
Those who arrive in the UK from 1 January 2021 (and who are not eligible to apply under the EU Settlement Scheme - see above) are expected to apply under a different and appropriate category of the UK's Immigration Rules - see Brexit - immigration.
Deadline and cost of the scheme
The deadline for EEA citizens and their eligible family members (who were in the UK before the end of the transition period) to make an initial application under the settlement scheme was 30 June 2021 (if they do not have permission to be in the UK under another immigration category), but see below for information about 'joining family members'. However, there is provision to make an application after the deadline in cases where the Home Office thinks there are 'reasonable grounds' for missing the deadline. See the EU settlement Scheme caseworker guidance for a non-exhaustive list of examples of reasons.
From 17 December 2021 until 12 April 2022,the EU settlement Scheme caseworker guidance specifically stated that an applicant would not be able to make a successful late application to the scheme based on there being reasonable grounds for failing to meet the deadline applicable to them following a refused in-time application, as they previously met the original deadline. However, this guidance was revised on 13 April 2022, to say a second application in these circumstances would not normally be accepted, but outlines, examples of occasions where such applications might be accepted. If you would like help in making a late application, see the section Further Help to find organisations that may be able to offer information or advice to assist in making a late application.
Note that for applications made on or after 9 August 2023, the assessment of whether there are 'reasonable grounds' for making a late application (after the deadline) is done at the initial (validity) stage of the processing of the application. Information about the reasons for the delay, along with evidence, should be provided as part of the application. If there is no information about the delay or the reason is not considered to be a 'reasonable ground' the application can be rejected as invalid immediately. If there is information, but no evidence (or the evidence is insufficinet) the Home Officer caseworker should write to you and give you 14 days to provide evidence. If the caseworker has doubts about the autenticity of evidence, they can reject your application immediately. If the application is rejected as invalid, no Certificate of Application is issued, and there is no right to an appeal or administrative review. If you are in this position, you should seek advice. See: Further Help
For information about the legal status for those applied by 30 June 2021 and for those who make a late application see below - your legal status while awaiting a decision
For information about 'joining family members' (both EEA and non-EEA) who are eligible to apply but who were not in the UK before the end of the transition period (31 December 2020), including children born or adopted after the end of the transition period and the deadlines they must meet - see the citizens advice bureau website.
The application is free. The application under the pilot cost £65. The Home Office has published guidance about refunds for those who applied under the pilot
The settlement scheme has been designed to be very straightforward and user-friendly and has been tested under three pilots (with modifications made to the application throughout these pilots).
Exercising treaty rights
In order to apply under the settlement scheme you do not have to demonstrate that you are ‘exercising a right to reside’. This means if you are an EU citizen you will not have to demonstrate that you are in the UK as a ‘worker’, ‘student’ or ‘self-sufficient person’ etc. While there is therefore no requirement to provide evidence that you have comprehensive sickness insurance as part or application under the EU settlement scheme, until you get permission under the scheme (in cases where you have applied by the deadline) you will need to be exercising a right to reside while you are in the UK in order to be considered to be in the UK lawfully. Therefore you will need to have comprehensive sickness insurance if you are in the UK as either a student, self-sufficient person or family member of either.
Eligible family members who were not themselves in the UK by 31 December 2020 are still able to apply under the scheme if the qualifying relationship with the eligible EU/EEA/Swiss citizen was formed by this date, or they are a child (of someone eligible) who is born or adopted after this date. This includes:
Once you have ‘settled status’ any children (not grandchildren or great-grandchildren) you have who are under 21 can also apply for ‘settled status’ (without needing to be in the UK for five years themselves).
See the Home Office website for the criteria eligible family members need to meet to apply under the EU Settlement Scheme.
You will be able to apply for ‘settled status’ under the scheme if you have lived in the UK for five years. You must meet the definition of ‘continuous qualifying period’ in Appendix EU Annex 1- Definitions, which includes permitted gaps of:
See this blog on the Freemovement webiste which explains how absences are calculated, and how to deal with problems concerning absences.
There are (limited) circumstances in which someone can obtain ‘settled status’ with less than five years’ residence.
'Settled status' is also referred to as ‘indefinite leave to remain’.
Can you lose ‘settled status’?
‘Settled status’ under the EU settlement scheme granted to Swiss citizens and their family members will be lost after a continuous absence of more than four years from the UK and Islands. ‘Settled status' granted to everyone else under the scheme will be lost after a continuous absence of more than five years from the UK and Islands.
What to do if you lose your ‘settled status’
Holders of pre-settled status who have had a continuous absence longer than that permitted under the definition of 'continuous qualifying period' will not qualify for settled status. However, if after breaking your 'continuous qualifying period', you returned to the UK and Islands by 11 pm on 31 December 2020 you could apply again under the EU settlement scheme. This should result in another grant of pre-settled status for five years (see below).
If you lose your ‘settled status’, and you no longer meet the requirements of the EU settlement scheme, eg you have returned after 31 December 2020, you will have to apply under a relevant category of the Immigration Rules.
If you have not been in the UK for five years, by meeting the definition of ‘continuous qualifying period’ in Appendix EU Annex 1- Definitions, you can apply for ‘pre-settled status’ (BUT, see information above re deadlines and late applications under 'Deadline and cost'). This is a grant of five years’ permission. From 9 August 2023, it will no longer a requirement to apply for further permission under the scheme by the end of this 5 year period. The Home Office can automatically extend pre-settled status, in cases where someone hasn't applied for settled status before their pre-settled status expires. The Home Office made an announcement about this on 17 July 2023, but more detail should be available soon after 9 August 2023 (after which we will update this page again).
There is no minimum time you need to have spent in the UK in order to apply for pre-settled status, but you will need to show evidence that you meet the definition of ‘continuous qualifying period’ in Appendix EU Annex 1- Definitions if the Home Office can't see this from checking other government records, such as HMRC records. This also applies if you are applying from outside the UK. The guidance for Home Office caseworkers contains a helpful list of evidence that the Home Office currently accept, although other evidence can be used to evidence your residence in the UK.
Can you lose pre-settled status?
'Pre-settled' status will be lost after a continuous absence of more than two years from the UK and Islands.
If you lose your ‘pre-settled status’, and you no longer meet the requirements of the EU settlement scheme, eg you have returned to the UK after 31 December 2020, you will have to apply under a relevant category of the Immigration Rules.
What to do before your pre-settled status expires
Make sure you do not lose your status through an absence from the UK and Islands exceeding two years.
After five years of continuous residence in the UK, you can apply for settled status. This five-year period does not have to start from the date on which you are granted pre-settled status - it will include all the time you have lived in the UK. Since 9 August 2023, it is no longer a requirement to apply for further permission under the scheme by the end of this five-year period. The Home Office can automatically extend pre-settled status, in cases where someone hasn't applied for settled status before their pre-settled status expires. The Home Office made an announcement about this on 17 July 2023, but more detail should be available soon.
If you have lost pre-settled status there are a small number of situations in which you can apply for a new grant of pre-settled status. This includes where you have re-started a second period of residence before 11pm on 31 December 2020, and where certain concessions under the Coronavirus absences guidance apply. If any of these apply to you, you may need another grant of pre-settled status before you can qualify for ‘settled status’.
What to do if you have pre-settled status and are about to break your ‘continuous qualifying period of residence’
If you are about to break your 'continuous qualifying period', eg by being outside the UK for more than six months in any 12-month period, or for over 12 months for an 'important reason' or going beyond the limitations allowed in the concessions on absences because of the Coronavirus (see below), you will need to return to the UK before you reach that point if you wish to apply for settled status under the settlement scheme. If you do not do this, you will not be able to stay in the UK long term under the EU settlement scheme.
Once you are back, you must also maintain your 'continuous qualifying period' for five years in order to qualify for settled status.
Absences from the UK because of the Coronavirus
From 6 October 2021, the immigration Rules have outlined which absences 'because of Covid-19' will be acceptable (ie will not break the 'continuous qualifying period' required for settled or pre-settled status). These are:
- a single period of absence of between six and twelve months;
- a single absence which was not intended to exceed six months and did not exceed 12 months;
- a second period of absence of between six and twelve months (not beacuse of Covid 19, other than for caring for someone with a serious illness) following an absence in (1) or (2) above;
- a period of absence of between six and twelve months (not because of Covid 19, other than for caring for someone with a serious illness) followed by an absence in (1) or (2) above
- an absence as outlined in (1) - (4) above which exceeded 12 months because of Covid-19 and meant that the person was prevented from, or advised against, returning earlier.
Any period of absence exceeding six/twelve months (as relevant) in (3), (4) or (5) above will not count as time towards the period of time required to get settled status. Therefore, anyone in this position will need to spend longer in the UK after the end of what would have been their 'continuous qualifying period' to obtain settled status.
Home Officer caseworker guidance was updated on 11 November 2021 to provide a non-exhaustive list of reasons when an absence is considered to be 'because of Covid-19'. These include where an applicant was:
- advised by their university that, due to COVID-19, their course was moved to remote learning and were advised or allowed to return to their home country to study remotely
- advised by their university or employer not to return to the UK, and to continue studying or working remotely from their home country
The guidance goes on to say: "This means that such a person can rely on any COVID-19 related reason (including where they chose to leave or remain outside the UK because of the pandemic) as being an ‘important reason’ permitting an absence of up to 12 months."
The guidance contains a non-exhaustive list of evidence that caseworkers can accept. The guidance also includes an explanation of how absences that exceed 12 months will impact on applications for settled status.
10 June - 5 October 2021
Before 6 October 2021 provision for absences 'due to the Coronavirus' were only contained in guidance, as concessions to the Rules. On 10 June 2021 the Home Office released information and new Home Officer caseworker guidance explaining how absences 'because of the Coronavirus' would be treated in regards to eligibility under the EU Settlement Scheme. The guidance outlined the following four absences (from a non-exhaustive list under each heading) when deciding whether an was 'because of the Coronavrius'
- one-off absence of up to 12 months
- an absence which was not intended to exceed 6 months and did not exceed 12 months
- an absence exceeding 12 months
- a second absence for up to ‘12 months for an important reason’. The guidance says that in this case either absence can exceed 12 months, but explains that there are more limited circumstances in which the period beyond 12 months will be accepted. It further explains how the excess period will be dealth with in calculting the period required for settled status.
In all cases listed above an acceptable reason for the absence was where you were "advised by your university or employer not to return to the UK, and to continue studying or working remotely from your home country, due to coronavirus". In cases where the absence (or second absence, where permitted) didn't exceed 12 months, an acceptable reason was where you were "advised by your university that, due to coronavirus, your course was moved to remote learning and you were advised or allowed to return to your home country to study remotely."
15 December 2020 - 6 May 2021
From 15 December 2020 until 6 May 2021 the guidance on the Home Office website included the following:
"If you are a student who was studying in the UK and are studying outside the UK because of coronavirus, that absence will not cause you to break your continuous qualifying period, where it is for a single period of more than 6 months but not more than 12 months, during your 5-year continuous qualifying period."
This guidance was withdrawn on 6 May 2021 without notice or explantaion. On 3 June 2021, there was an update from the law firm Bindmans LLP, explaining the reasons for the withdrawn guidance.
In order to be eligible under the scheme as an EEA citizen you must have been in the UK and Islands before 11 pm on 31 December 2020, and you will need to apply under the scheme (either inside or outside the UK) before you exceed any allowed absences (but also see above for important information about deadlines under 'deadline and cost'). If you have or are applying for pre-settled status and are planning on applying for settled status in the future you must maintain your residence in the UK and Islands (ie not be outside the UK and Islands for longer than the allowed absences - see 'settled status' above). This is not just from the point that your pre-settled application is decided, but for the whole five year period you are relying on as qualifying for settled status.
Does permission under the EU settlement scheme allow study?
Once you have ‘pre-settled’ or ‘settled’ status, there will be no restrictions on study (where you study or what you study).